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National Security Adviser.
Trip Briefing Books and Cables of President Ford, 1974-76

Collection Finding Aid


SUMMARY DESCRIPTION

The collection nucleus is briefing books prepared for President Ford in anticipation of his meetings with foreign leaders during his trips overseas.  The collection also includes materials pertaining to advance work and trip planning.  In addition there is White House and State Department cable traffic to and from the presidential travel party, including Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft, on important diplomatic and security developments unrelated to the trips.

QUANTITY
8.8 linear feet (ca. 17,600 pages)

DONOR
Gerald R. Ford (accession number 77-118)

ACCESS
Open, but some materials continue to be national security classified and restricted.  Access is governed by the donor’s deed of gift, a copy of which is available on request, and National Archives and Records Administration regulations (36 CFR 1256).

COPYRIGHT
Gerald R. Ford donated to the United States of America his copyrights in all of his unpublished writings in National Archives collections.  The copyrights to materials written by other individuals or organizations are presumed to remain with them.  Works prepared by U.S. Government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain.

Prepared by Helmi Raaska, August 1996; revised by Geir Gundersen, Mark Fischer, David Horrocks, and William McNitt, January 2011


INTRODUCTION

The White House Situation Room: Noon and Evening Notes is one of many sub-collections that comprise the National Security Adviser Files. The provenance of the Ford National Security Adviser Files and an explanation of the designations “Presidential” and “Institutional” are provided in Appendix A.

This collection especially includes briefing books prepared for President Ford in anticipation of his meetings with foreign leaders during his trips overseas. It also includes briefing books for President Ford’s trips to the United Nations, a summit in Puerto Rico, and a stay at Vail, Colorado.  In addition to the briefing books, there is much other trip-related material.

The briefing books contain background papers, talking points, draft communiqués, tentative schedules, and biographical sketches.  Background papers prepared by Secretary of State Kissinger are often of special interest.  They detail Kissinger’s past meetings with world leaders, particularly Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union and Mao Zedong of the People's Republic of China, and provide Kissinger’s assessments of their personalities and negotiating styles.

In addition to briefing books, many of the trip files contain: State Department and White House cable traffic, communications sent to and from Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft (HAKTO/TOHAK and SCOTO/TOSCO messages) during the trip, and background materials prepared for the press.  The different types of communications are identified by the folder titles.  Folders titled "General" contain memoranda concerning the preparation of briefing materials, various drafts of briefing books, materials concerning advance work and scheduling, and occasional substantive documents.  Cable traffic covers both pre-trip planning and the exchange of information during the trip.

President Ford’s first major overseas trip was to the Soviet Union’s city of Vladivostok, a Pacific seaport, for nuclear arms control discussions with Leonid Brezhnev.  The November 1974 trip also included state visits to nearby U.S. allies, Japan and South Korea.

In December 1974, French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing hosted President Ford on France’s Caribbean island territory of Martinique.  Their discussions of world economic and energy issues led to the first international economic summit of leaders of the major industrial democracies.  It was held near Paris, France, in November 1975.  This was followed by a second economic summit, of comparable scope, hosted by President Ford in Puerto Rico in June 1976.

President Ford traveled again to Europe in spring 1975.  He joined other allied leaders for a NATO summit meeting in Belgium.  Ford then traveled to Salzburg, Austria, for a critical meeting with President Anwar Sadat of Egypt on Sinai disengagement talks between Israel and Egypt.  This trip also included visits to Italy, the Vatican, and Franco’s Spain.

In summer 1975, President Ford traveled to Helsinki, Finland for the largest gathering of European heads of state since the Congress of Vienna in 1815.  This Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe addressed security, national boundary, economic and cultural cooperation, and human rights issues across Europe.  During this trip President Ford also visited West Germany, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Romania.

Seven months after the military defeat of U.S.-supported governments in South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, President Ford returned to East Asia in December 1975.  His main goal was to meet Chinese communist leaders Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping and sustain the movement toward normalization of diplomatic relations begun under President Nixon.  After leaving Beijing, President Ford visited Indonesia and the Philippines.

The briefing books are a good source of information on U.S. foreign relations, with materials on the Soviet Union, arms control, Middle East peace negotiations, international economic issues, developing relations with China, the Helsinki agreements, and NATO.  Their value lies more in the background information they provide than in information on foreign policy decision-making in the Ford administration.  In addition to what appears in the briefing books, other briefing materials and talking points can also be found in folders for specific meetings and in folders titled "General."

When First Lady Betty Ford and daughter Susan Ford traveled with the President, separate briefing books were also prepared for them.  This collection includes copies of their materials for the May-June 1975 trip to Europe and the November-December 1975 visit to the Far East.

Related Materials (January 2011)
Some overlap exists between these trip files and many National Security Adviser subcollections, especially Trip Briefing Books and Cables for Henry Kissinger, and Trip Briefing Books and Cables for Brent Scowcroft.  Typewritten copies of many TOHAK messages are also found in the Brent Scowcroft Daily Work Files.  Related materials may also be found in the Presidential Country Files for places President Ford visited.  Memoranda of conversations detailing the discussions with foreign leaders held during these trips may be found in the Memoranda of Conversations subcollection or in the Kissinger Reports on USSR, China, and Middle East Discussions.


Series Descriptions

Boxes 1-22                Presidential Trips File, 1974-76.  (8.8 linear feet)
The series contains briefing and background papers, talking points, memoranda of conversations, communiqués, telegrams, schedules, and biographies.  Many of these materials are organized into briefing books prepared for President Ford's trips abroad and his meetings with foreign leaders during these trips.  Other folders contain materials relating to advance work and scheduling, White House Situation Room and State Department cable traffic, communications to and from Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft, and briefing materials prepared for the press.  Included is substantive background information on U.S. relations with various countries and on issues such as arms control, Middle East peace negotiations, Helsinki agreements, international economy, Soviet Union, arms control, developing relations with China, and NATO.  Arranged chronologically by date of trip, and thereunder alphabetically by folder title.


Container List

Box 1              Presidential Trips File
September 18, 1974 - United Nations
- Briefing Book (1)-(2)
October 21, 1974 - Mexico
- Briefing Book (1)-(5)
- General (1)-(4)
- TOHAK
- Meetings with Luis Echeverria, President of Mexico (1)-(2)
- Security Conditions
November 1974 - Japan, Korea, and USSR
- Briefing Book - Japan and Korea (1)-(2)

Box 2               Presidential Trips File
November 1974 - Japan, Korea and USSR
- Briefing Book - Japan and Korea (3)-(4)
- Briefing Book - Seoul (1)-(4)
- Briefing Book - Tokyo (1)-(9)
- Briefing Book - Vladivostok, Volume I (1)-(4)
- Briefing Book - Vladivostok, Volume II (1)

Box 3               Presidential Trips File
November 1974 - Japan, Korea and USSR
- Briefing Book - Vladivostok, Volume II (2)-(5)
- Cables
- General (1)-(15)

Box 4               Presidential Trips File
November 1974 - Japan, Korea and USSR
- General (16)-(27)
- HAKTO (1)-(12)
- TOHAK, 10/23-11/9/74 (1)-(2)

Box 5               Presidential Trips File
November 1974 - Japan, Korea and USSR
- TOHAK, 10/23-11/9/74 (3)-(13)
- TOHAK, 11/17-30/74 (1)-(5)

Box 6               Presidential Trips File
November 1974 - Japan, Korea and USSR
- TOHAK, 11/17-30/74 (6)
- Messages Sent by DACOM
- USSR Facts Book
December 14-16, 1974 - Martinique
- Briefing Book - Meeting with President Valery Giscard d’Estaing (1)-(6)
- Briefing Book - Meeting with President Valery Giscard d’Estaing - Talkers for President (1)-(3)
- Cables (1)-(2)
- General (1)-(7)

Box 7               Presidential Trips File
December 14-16, 1974 - Martinique
- HAKTO
- TOHAK, 12/10-13/74
- TOHAK, 12/14-16/74
May 28 - June 3, 1975 - Europe
- Briefing Book - European Papers (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Madrid
- Briefing Book - Meeting with President Sadat (1)-(4)
- Briefing Book - NATO (1)-(4)

Box 8               Presidential Trips File
May 28 - June 3, 1975 - Europe
- Briefing Book - NATO Background
- Briefing Book - NATO Bilaterals (1)-(6)
- Briefing Book - Notes for Mrs. Ford (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Rome and the Vatican (1)-(3)
- Day #6 - June 2, 1975 (1)-(3)
- General (1)-(4)

Box 9               Presidential Trips File
May 28 - June 3, 1975 - Europe
- General (5)-(10)
- TOHAK
- Meeting - May 28, 1975, 9:00 p.m. - Baudouin I, King of the Belgians
- Meeting - May 28, 1975, 9:15 p.m. - Prime Minister Tindemans of Belgium
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 8:15 a.m. - Prime Minister Thorn of Luxembourg
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 9:30 a.m. - Prime Minister Caramanlis of Greece
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 11:30 a.m. - Prime Minister Demirel of Turkey
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 1:30 p.m. - FRG Chancellor Helmut Schmidt
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 3:00 p.m. - Prime Minister Jorgensen of Denmark
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, 3:30 p.m. - Prime Minister Goncalves of Portugal
- Meeting - May 29, 1975, Following Dinner - President Giscard d’Estaing of France
- Meeting - May 30, 1975, 8:30 a.m. - Prime Minister Wilson of the United Kingdom
- Meeting - May 30, 1975, Following Luncheon - Prime Minister Trudeau of Canada
- Meeting - May 30, 1975, 5:15 p.m. - Prime Minister Brattteli of Norway
- Meeting - May 30, 1975, 5:40 p.m. - Prime Minister Hallgrimsson of Iceland
- Meeting - May 30, 1975, 6:00 p.m. - EC Commission President Ortoli
- Meeting - June 1, 1975, 11:05 a.m. - Bruno Kreisky, Chancellor of Austria
- Meeting - June 1-2, 1975 - President Anwar Al-Sadat (1)-(3)
- Meeting - June 3, 1975, 6:00 p.m. - Pope Paul VI
- Meetings - May 29-30, 1975 - NATO Heads of Government
- Meetings - May 31 - June 1, 1975 - General Franco, Prince Juan Carlos, and Prime Minister Arias of Spain
- Meetings - June 3, 1975, 11:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. - President Leone and Prime Minister Moro of Italy
- Press Notes (1)-(4)

Box 10             Presidential Trips File
May 28 - June 3, 1975 - Europe
- Schedule for Secretary Kissinger (1)-(2)
- Summary of Developments in Your Absence
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- Briefing Book - Belgrade (1)-(2)
- Briefing Book - Bonn (1)-(2)
- Briefing Book - Bucharest (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - CSCE - Copy 1 (1)-(2)
- Briefing Book - CSCE - Copy 2 (1)-(2)
- Briefing Book - CSCE Bilateral Book - Volume I (1)-(6)

Box 11             Presidential Trips File
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- Briefing Book - CSCE Bilateral Book - Volume II (1)-(6)
- Briefing Book - CSCE Biographies - Copy 1 (1)-(5)
- Briefing Book - CSCE Biographies - Copy 2 (1)-(7)

Box 12             Presidential Trips File
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- Briefing Book - Helsinki - Arms Control Book - Copy 1 - General Scowcroft (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Helsinki - Arms Control Book - Copy 2 - President Ford (1)-(4)
- Briefing Book - Helsinki - Bilateral Book (1)-(7)
- Briefing Book - Warsaw (1)-(3)
- Cables - Belgrade - EXDIS and NODIS
- Cables - Bonn - EXDIS and NODIS
- Cables - Bucharest - EXDIS and NODIS

Box 13             Presidential Trips File
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- Cables - In (Backchannel)
- Cables - Out (Backchannel)
- Cables - State Department - EXDIS
- Cables - State Department - NODIS
- Cables - Warsaw - EXDIS
- Cables - Warsaw - NODIS
- Cables - White House Situation Room - In (1)-(2)
- Cables - White House Situation Room - Out
- Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe - Final Act
- General (1)-(15)

Box 14             Presidential Trips File
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- General (16)-(22)
- HAKTO
- TOHAK (1)-(12)

Box 15             Presidential Trips File
July 26 - August 4, 1975 - Europe
- TOHAK (13)-(16)
- Helsinki, Bucharest, Belgrade, Mildenhall
- President's Meeting with Brezhnev (1)-(3)
- Press Notes (1)-(4)
- Publication of Top Secret Documents
- SECTO - EXDIS and NODIS (1)-(2)
- TOSEC - EXDIS and NODIS (1)-(4)

Box 16             Presidential Trips File
August 11-24, 1975 - Vail, Colorado
- SCOTO
- TOSCO (1)-(18)
November 15-17, 1975 - Paris Economic Summit
- Briefing Book - The President’s Bilateral Meetings (1)-(3)

Box 17             Presidential Trips File
November 15-17, 1975 - Paris Economic Summit
- Cables - State Department
- General
- Possible Bilaterals (1)-(2)
- SCOTO
- TOSCO (1)-(2)
- SECTO
- TOSEC
November 28 - December 7, 1975 - Far East
- Briefing Book - China - Mrs. Ford and Susan - Mrs. Ford's Copy (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - China - Mrs. Ford and Susan - Susan's Copy (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Indonesia - The President (1)-(5)
- Briefing Book - Jakarta and Manila - Mrs. Ford (1)-(2)

Box 18             Presidential Trips File
November 28 - December 7, 1975 - Far East
- Briefing Book - Manila - NSC (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Manila - NSC - Hyland (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Manila - The President (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Peking - Angola - The President
- Briefing Book - Peking - Bilateral Issues – President’s Copy (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Peking - Bilateral Issues – Scowcroft’s Copy (1)-(3)

Box 19             Presidential Trips File
November 28 - December 7, 1975 - Far East
- Briefing Book - Peking - Congressman Ford’s 1972 Trip to China (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Peking - International Issues – President’s Copy (1)-(6)
- Briefing Book - Peking - International Issues – Scowcroft’s Copy (1)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Peking - Meeting with Chairman Mao – President’s Copy (1)-(3) (The folder is available in digital form. Please click on the folder title to view PDF files of the documents.)
- Briefing Book - Peking - Meeting with Chairman Mao – Scowcroft’s Copy (1)

Box 20             Presidential Trips File
November 28 - December 7, 1975 - Far East
- Briefing Book - Peking - Meeting with Chairman Mao – Scowcroft’s Copy (2)-(3)
- Briefing Book - Peking - Talking Points for Meetings with Teng Hsiao-P’ing (1)-(3)
- Cables - Jakarta
- Cables - Manila
- General (1)-(8)
- Intelligence Report on Peking and Environs
- Memoranda in Support of the President's Trip to the People's Republic of China (1)-(3)
- Schedules
- SCOTO

Box 21             Presidential Trips File
November 28 - December 7, 1975 - Far East
- TOSCO (1)-(12)
- SECTO (1)-(2)
- TOSEC (1)-(5)

Box 22             Presidential Trips File
June 27-28, 1976 - Puerto Rico Economic Summit
- General (1)-(11)
- TOSCO